Finely tuned neuronal trafficking is essential for regulating brain plasticity and functions. Defaults in neuronal trafficking are signatures of many central disorders including epilepsy, autism, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases. Therefore understanding how neuronal trafficking is regulated and how neuron output can be restored in order to reverse common neuronal trafficking disorders are of primary importance. This symposium proposes to highlight some of the recent advances concerning the cellular biology controlling neuronal trafficking. Hence the presentations will describe multidisciplinary approaches focusing on different aspects of neuronal cell biology, including the cell architecture, the transport inside the cell and the exocytosis to unravel neuron physiology and communication. Far beyond of a single way of thinking, this symposium will generate a unique synergy to discuss and provide new insights into the complex regulatory mechanisms of neuronal trafficking. This symposium also represents a unique opportunity to present advanced microscopy techniques and cell biology perspectives dedicated to neuroscience by five internationally recognized cellular biologists, including four members of the SBCF to a large audience of neuroscientists at the Mediterranean Neuroscience Conference (70 symposia in total during the meeting).