Responsable : Nicolas BORGHI
In multicellular organisms, cells generate and experience mechanical forces that are propagated throughout the organism. Ultimately, these forces may shape tissues and organs, and regulate genetic programs. The molecular mechanisms of mechanical force transmission and transduction into biochemical signals are, however, poorly understood.
Our project focuses on the macromolecular complexes that transmit and transduce mechanical cues within and between cells, and the cell functions affected by these cues. We are interested in plasma membrane adhesion receptors, transmembrane complexes of the nuclear envelope, and their functions in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and transcriptional activity.
To address this goal, we apply and develop genetically encoded biosensors and advanced microscopy and micromanipulation methods in cell culture model systems. This combination enables to dynamically and quantitatively control and monitor the behavior of protein complexes and cells in a wide range of time- and length-scales.
Membrane Trafficking, Ubiquitin and Signalling lab @ IJM, Paris
We study cell biology using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model. Particularly, we study how nutrients (especially, glucose) control plasma membrane protein homeostasis (eg. nutrient transporters), and the contribution of signaling pathways and ubiquitin to this process. We currently focus on the role of arrestin-related proteins and their regulation by nutrient signalling pathways.
We are also developing projects related to cancer cell metabolism using both yeast and cultured cancer cells.
Keywords: Endocytosis, Membranes, Trafficking, Nutrient transporters, Glucose metabolism and signaling, AMPK / Snf1, Ubiquitin , Nedd4 / Rsp5, Arrestin-related proteins (ARTs, ARRDCs), Yeast, Cell imaging, Proteomics, Cancer metabolism
Mechanical constraints and force transmission play an essential role in multicellular living organisms. They are regulating basic biological processes such as morphogenesis, tumor metastasis and tissue repair. Cell adhesions, coupled to the contractile cytoskeleton, are major sites of force transmission in cells. This mechanical coupling which enables cells to sense, signal, and respond to physical changes in the environment, has however been largely understudied. In this context, we are studying the cooperation between adhesion, mechanical and biochemical signaling for the adaptation of living cells to changes in their physical environment at various scales, from single molecules to tissues.
Our group is interested in membrane dynamics and intracellular trafficking in eukaryotic cells. We are focusing on three major areas: the spatial organization of membrane organelles and their contact sites during cellular processes such as cell division and cell interactions, on the transport of lipids between organelles and their homeostasis, and on the regulation by small G-proteins and GEFs of membrane dynamics and lipid trafficking. The three sub-projects have as their common goal to study membrane organelles from their lipidic identity to the dynamic regulation of their spatial organization.